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What disease is diabetes insipidus?

Avatar of Nick John By Nick John Dec4,2023 #insipidus #What
What disease is diabetes insipidus? 12
What disease is diabetes insipidus? 12

Doctor Phan Thi Thuy Dung, Department of Endocrinology – Diabetes, Tam Anh General Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, said diabetes insipidus is a water balance disorder due to increased free water excretion in the kidneys, causing water loss.

Diabetes insipidus is caused by two mechanisms including decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone), also known as AVP (Arginine vasopressin) causing central diabetes insipidus and decreased kidney response to AVP leading to diabetes insipidus

When the body lacks AVP, the kidneys lose the ability to concentrate urine and increase free water excretion through the kidneys, causing frequent urination and increased thirst.

In some cases, AVP is secreted sufficiently but the kidneys do not respond to AVP, causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Dr. Thuy Dung said the rate of diabetes insipidus is about one in 25,000 people. It is common in adults but can occur at any age.

Reason

Central diabetes insipidus: Damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus due to surgery (appears 1-6 days after surgery and usually disappears), tumors, head trauma (can recover after 6 months), disease

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: The disease occurs when the kidneys have problems and cannot respond or respond slowly to ADH.

Symptoms and complications

According to Dr. Dung, the main symptoms of the disease include frequent urination, thirst and drinking a lot of water.

Patients often have a feeling of dry mouth and thirst even after drinking water.

Young children with diabetes insipidus often have slow growth, high body temperature, and unexplained weight loss.

People with diabetes insipidus are easily dehydrated, thirsty, and urinate frequently.

Diagnose

Patients need to provide information about urine output each day.

The patient was admitted to the hospital and performed the `Water Fasting Test` to help distinguish diabetes insipidus from primary polydipsia.

Treatment

Doctor Thuy Dung said treatment of this disease must be based on the cause.

Central diabetes insipidus: Mild cases of diabetes insipidus with symptoms of nocturia and mild frequency of urination can respond to a low-protein and low-salt diet and drinking enough water.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: Stop potentially causative drugs or correct electrolyte disorders, the disease can recover quickly.

If left untreated, the disease can cause dangerous complications.

Readers can ask questions about endocrine diseases – diabetes here for doctors to answer.

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